Production of apoplastic reactive oxygen species (ROS), or oxidative burst, is among the first responses of plants upon recognition of microorganisms. It requires peroxidase or NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity and factors maintaining cellular redox homeostasis. Here, PpTSPO1 involved in mitochondrial tetrapyrrole transport and abiotic (salt) stress tolerance was tested for its role in biotic stress in Physcomitrella patens, a nonvascular plant (moss). The fungal elicitor chitin caused an immediate oxidative burst in wild-type P. patens but not in the previously described ΔPrx34 mutants lacking the chitin-responsive secreted class III peroxidase (Prx34). Oxidative burst in P. patens was associated with induction of the oxidative stress-related genes AOX, LOX7, and NOX, and also PpTSPO1. The available ΔPpTSPO1 knockout mutants overexpressed AOX and LOX7 constitutively, produced 2.6-fold more ROS than wild-type P. patens, and exhibited increased sensitivity to a fungal necrotrophic pathogen and a saprophyte. These results indicate that Prx34, which is pivotal for antifungal resistance, catalyzes ROS production in P. patens, while PpTSPO1 controls redox homeostasis. The capacity of TSPO to bind harmful free heme and porphyrins and scavenge them through autophagy, as shown in Arabidopsis under abiotic stress, seems important to maintenance of the homeostasis required for efficient pathogen defense.
Officials were forced to close the airport after the Airbus 321 burst four of its rear tires while landing, blocking the runway, said Androulla Christodoulou, head of Paphos' airport civil aviation services.
\"Never before in the history of warfare had there been a continuing explosive; indeed, up to the middle of the twentieth century the only explosives known were combustibles whose explosiveness was due entirely to their instantaneousness; and these atomic bombs which science burst upon the world that night were strange even to the men who used them.\"H.G. Wells. The World Set Free. 1914.
Napoleon agreed. On April 11, Foreign Minister Charles Maurice de Talleyrand told Livingston that France was willing to sell all of Louisiana. Livingston informed Monroe upon his arrival the next day.
Jefferson's prediction of a \"tornado\" that would burst upon the countries on both sides of the Atlantic had been averted, but his belief that the affair of Louisiana would impact upon \"their highest destinies\" proved prophetic indeed.
A Southwest Airlines Boeing 737 suffered a burst tire upon landing in St. Louis, Missouri. The incident occurred on September 26th, 2019. The Boeing 737-700 incurred flap and gear damage. Fortunately, there are no reports of injuries or fatalities as a result of this incident.
WN2291 was a normal flight operating from Southwest's hub in Dallas-Love Field, Texas to Saint Louis, Missouri on September 16th. Then, per a report from the Aviation Herald, the Boeing 737-700 suffered a tire burst upon landing on runway 12L. The aircraft was able to roll out after landing. No injuries or fatalities were reported. The airport, also, did not report any major operational disruptions.
Tire bursts normally are not major incidents. However, this was not the case for this particular 737. Data from FlightRadar24 shows the Boeing 737-700, registered as N740SW, was ferried to Atlanta on September 28th. This is because the aircraft suffered flap and gear damage.
Tire bursts do occur in the aviation world. Recently, a Sunstate Airlines Dash 8 returned to Brisbane after a burst tire during takeoff. As in this case, the extent of damage from a burst tire can be significant. As a result, after takeoff, aircraft will sometimes return to their departure airport for further inspection. On the other hand, if the tire bursts upon landing, there is not much a crew can do except proceed with landing. Crews are specially trained to handle these kinds of scenarios.
It is important to realize that aircraft tires are designed to handle thousands of pounds of weight upon landing. The science behind the design and action of airplane tires has been solidified over years of research and experiences. As a result, tire bursts are not common but can occur. That being said, the likelihood of a tire burst impacting travel is rare.
He struck a light, kindled a fire, and thrust the club into it. There was hair upon the end, which blazed and shrunk into a light cinder, and, caught by the air, whirled up the chimney. Even that frightened him, sturdy as he was; but he held the weapon till it broke, and then piled it on the coals to burn away, and smoulder into ashes. He washed himself, and rubbed his clothes; there were spots that would not be removed, but he cut the pieces out, and burnt them. How those stains were dispersed about the room! The very feet of the dog were bloody.
All this time he had, never once, turned his back upon the corpse; no, not for a moment. Such preparations completed, he moved, backward, towards the door: dragging the dog with him, lest he should soil his feet anew and carry out new evidence of the crime into the streets. He shut the door softly, locked it, took the key, and left the house.
He crossed over, and glanced up at the window, to be sure that nothing was visible from the outside. There was the curtain still drawn, which she would have opened to admit the light she never saw again. It lay nearly under there. He knew that. God, how the sun poured down upon the very spot!
With the same perversity of feeling and irresolution that had fastened upon him, despite himself, all day, the murderer, finding that he was not followed, and that they most probably considered him some drunken sullen fellow, turned back up the town, and getting out of the glare of the lamps of a stage-coach that was standing in the street, was walking past, when he recognised the mail from London, and saw that it was standing at the little post-office. He almost knew what was to come; but he crossed over, and listened.
And here he remained in such terror as none but he can know, trembling in every limb, and the cold sweat starting from every pore, when suddenly there arose upon the night-wind the noise of distant shouting, and the roar of voices mingled in alarm and wonder. Any sound of men in that lonely place, even though it conveyed a real cause of alarm, was something to him. He regained his strength and energy at the prospect of personal danger; and springing to his feet, rushed into the open air.
He came upon the spot. There were half-dressed figures tearing to and fro, some endeavouring to drag the frightened horses from the stables, others driving the cattle from the yard and out-houses, and others coming laden from the burning pile, amidst a shower of falling sparks, and the tumbling down of red-hot beams. The apertures, where doors and windows stood an hour ago, disclosed a mass of raging fire; walls rocked and crumbled into the burning well; the molten lead and iron poured down, white hot, upon the ground. Women and children shrieked, and men encouraged each other with noisy shouts and cheers. The clanking of the engine-pumps, and the spirting and hissing of the water as it fell upon the blazing wood, added to the tremendous roar. He shouted, too, till he was hoarse; and flying from memory and himself, plunged into the thickest of the throng. Hither and thither he dived that night: now working at the pumps, and now hurrying through the smoke and flame, but never ceasing to engage himself wherever noise and men were thickest. Up and down the ladders, upon the roofs of buildings, over floors that quaked and trembled with his weight, under the lee of falling bricks and stones, in every part of that great fire was he; but he bore a charmed life, and had neither scratch nor bruise, nor weariness nor thought, till morning dawned again, and only smoke and blackened ruins remained.
He hurried off, and walked till he almost dropped upon the ground; then lay down in a lane, and had a long, but broken and uneasy sleep. He wandered on again, irresolute and undecided, and oppressed with the fear of another solitary night.
He acted upon this impulse without delay, and choosing the least frequented roads began his journey back, resolved to lie concealed within a short distance of the metropolis, and, entering it at dusk by a circuitous route, to proceed straight to that part of it which he had fixed on for his destination.
The rodent somatosensory (barrel) column has been widely studied to uncover the contribution of individual cell types to neural processing underlying whisker-guided decision-making, including that of L5 output neurons22. L5st pyramids receive dense input from the posterior medial thalamic nucleus (POm), are part of the paralemniscal pathway, their efferent projections target striatum and S1 in the contralateral hemisphere and do not respond reliably to passive touch9,23,24. L5tt pyramids receive multiple segregated inputs (including POm and VPM), are part of the lemniscal pathway, project to multiple downstream targets, and reliably respond to passive whisker touch11,24,25. L5tts exhibit coincidence-detection capability when segregated inputs are simultaneously active26, leading to dendritic Ca2+-dependent plateau potentials and ultimately perception8. The dendritic potentials are expected to induce somatic action potential (AP) burst spiking and this burst spiking is central to theories of the cortical neural code27,28 and was recently shown to control learning29. In addition, burst spiking may be critical to overcome synaptic depression in long-range anatomical projections, which is particularly relevant for the L5tt-to-POm pathway30,31. To aid functional interpretations of their morphological properties and uncover the contribution of L5st and L5tt pyramids to sensory-guided behavior, the cell-type-specific spiking activity needs to be disentangled in awake animals.
Action potential (AP) spiking by single units was recorded and neurons were labeled with biocytin for post hoc morphological reconstruction and cell-type identification. We determined AP responses to whisker touch for morphologically defined cell types, exemplified by a representative L(ayer) 5 slender-tufted (5st) and a representative L5 thick-tufted (5tt) pyramid, respectively (Fig. 1). Data included morphological reconstructions (Figs. 1d, h), loose-patch recordings in combination with offline whisker tracking (Figs. 1e, i), raster plots to align APs to individual touch events (Figs. 1f, j), and peri-stimulus time histograms to compute the average response rate across touch events (APs/touch, Figs. 1g, k). Touch did not increase spiking activity in this L5st example (Fig. 1g), contrasting the L5tt example, which showed a clear increase in spiking activity upon touch (albeit at low average number of APs per individual touch, Fig. 1k). 59ce067264